By Leonardo Morlino
Drawing on a scientific, empirical research of 4 key Southern eu nations, Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy, this insightful examine identifies numerous key features of democratic consolidation: consensus and legitimization, celebration method and get together association, and the ways that geared up and non-organized pursuits are concerning events and the associations of country. This e-book bargains the 1st large, comparative research of consolidation and difficulty in those nations, and lines a wealth of updated info on celebration companies, curiosity institutions, the media, and public opinion. even though essentially targeting Southern Europe, the author's findings are tremendous proper for figuring out the politics of a number of different areas, together with japanese Europe, Latin the United States, and South East Asia.
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Extra info for Democracy between Consolidation and Crisis: Parties, Groups, and Citizens in Southern Europe (Oxford Studies in Democratization)
There are no strong differences between consolidation and reconsolidation as far as deﬁnition and indicators are concerned. However, the previous regime and the modes by which the regime changes affect the process. Therefore, consolidation and reconsolidation will appear different when factors related to the previous authoritarian or democratic experience are considered. 37 The change concerns the transformation of a democratic regime into another one, always characterized by problems of continuity, vested interests, and cultural patterns established by the previous institutions.
35 Consolidation and crisis are neither maintenance nor persistence. The ‘breaking in’ period is basically over. 36 Maintenance or, in a simpler way, endurance is the result of a partially successful consolidation or of the containment of crisis, which may reappear at any moment. Persistence comes out of a successful consolidation or at the end of a reconsolidation. As the core of the consolidation process takes place during the ﬁrst years after installation, without a solution of continuity, it turns either into maintenance, if only partially successful, or 33 I prefer this term, but instauration or even inauguration, as suggested by some authors, are also acceptable.
In France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, such a ﬂuid, uncertain phase of transition is fairly short and it moves from the Vichy Republic, the breakdown of fascism, the death of Franco, and the captains' coup d’état up to the ﬁrst competitive elections, in a period of one or two years. In the Greek case, this phase is even shorter: elections came a few months after the military handed power to a civilian government led by Karamanlis in July 1974. Thus, the transition is concluded when there are the ﬁrst free, competitive elections.
Democracy between Consolidation and Crisis: Parties, Groups, and Citizens in Southern Europe (Oxford Studies in Democratization) by Leonardo Morlino