By C. N. Reid
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In this way, solid metals and alloys show a kind of (non-linear) viscosity. Viscous Behaviour. Solids in which the applied stress determines the rate of strain, rather than the strain itself, show viscous behaviour. Under certain conditions of high temperature and low stress, metals and alloys can show this behaviour too, while superplasticity or vacancy créais occurring. Approximately viscous flow is also associated with hot thermoplastics and glasses. Viscoelastic Behaviour. Many polymeric materials such as polypropylene show a blend of elastic and viscous behaviour at small strains.
As deformation proceeds these bands grow into the undeformed regions and the material consists of two parts: Lüders bands in which the plastic strain is constant, and undeformed material. This phenomenon is known as discontinuous yielding, and it is found in various materials which include impure body-centred cubic metals such as mild steel, and polypropylene. If we were to attempt to make a pressing from a sheet of annealed mild steel, we would find that discontinuous yielding of the sheet makes the pressing uneven and unsightly.
It is commonly of the order of 2° and clearly visible. SUPERPLASTICITY By definition, materials which show linear or Newtonian viscosity have m = 1. According to our condition for stable flow in tension, these materials should not show necking and should deform to large extensions before fracture. Molten glass or pitch exemplify this kind of behaviour, and certain polymers have values of m approaching unity when hot. Metals and alloys, too, may have similar m values in certain regimes of temperature and strain-rate, and these materials are notable for unusually large extensions of the order of 1000 per cent.
Deformation Geometry for Materials Scientists by C. N. Reid