By Daniela Donno
Even if approximately each nation on the planet at the present time holds multiparty elections, those contests are frequently blatantly unfair. For governments, electoral misconduct is a tempting but additionally a dicy perform, since it represents a contravention of even supposing approximately each kingdom on the planet at the present time holds multiparty elections, those contests are frequently blatantly unfair. For governments, electoral misconduct is a tempting but additionally a dicy perform, since it represents a contravention of overseas criteria at no cost and reasonable elections. In Defending Democratic Norms, Daniela Donno examines how foreign actors reply to those norm violations. Which governments are punished for manipulating elections? Does overseas norm enforcement make a distinction? Donno indicates that even if enforcement is selective and comparatively infrequent, while foreign actors do hire instruments of conditionality, international relations, mediation and shaming in line with electoral misconduct, they could have transformative results on either the standard and end result of elections. in particular, enforcement works by way of empowering the family competition and extending the government's incentives to reform associations of electoral administration and oversight. those results rely, even if, at the presence of a plausible competition flow, in addition to at the power and credibility of the enforcement attempt itself. The ebook exhibits that nearby foreign enterprises own special assets of leverage and legitimacy that cause them to the main regularly powerful norm defenders, even in comparison to extra materially robust actors just like the usa.
Drawing on an unique dataset from virtually seven hundred elections and incorporating case stories from the Dominican Republic, Serbia, Armenia, Kenya and Cambodia, Defending Democratic Norms is a daring new idea of foreign norm enforcement that demonstrates the significance of lively overseas intervention in household politics.
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Additional info for Defending Democratic Norms: International Actors and the Politics of Electoral Misconduct
It is conceivable that both the government and opposition may engage in manipulation, but in practice it is the government that is responsible for—and benefits from—the large majority of electoral malpractice. Opposition parties may perpetrate localized fraud in some contexts, but their ability to orchestrate systematic, nationwide manipulation pales in comparison to that of the government, which controls the institutions and resources of the state. Moreover, regardless of the source or reason for misconduct, it is ultimately the government that is responsible for ensuring the country’s compliance with international norms.
For this reason—as well as a desire to maintain a reputation for neutrality—international enforcers focus primarily on improving electoral conduct, rather than on promoting a particular electoral outcome (cf. Gershman and Allen 2006). RESEAR CH D E SIGN This book adopts a two-track methodological approach. Quantitative evidence is used to assess the causes and effects of enforcement in a global sample of elections. Qualitative evidence then zeroes in on the causal mechanisms that underpin these relationships.
This chapter provides a theory of the causes and consequences of international norm enforcement in response to electoral misconduct. Beginning with some simple assumptions about electoral competition between the government and opposition, I identify two key barriers to democratic change in countries that hold flawed elections: biased institutions and a weak opposition. Norm violations play out before an international audience, but international actors do not impose enforcement everywhere. The probability of punishment is shaped, at the country level, by patterns of geopolitical interest and by information.
Defending Democratic Norms: International Actors and the Politics of Electoral Misconduct by Daniela Donno