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By Michael J. Apter, and G. A. Kerkut (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0080114318

ISBN-13: 9780080114316

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A n organism controls the important aspects of its own development. That is, development is internally and not externally controlled. That this must be so is clear from the fact that members of the same species develop into members of the same species and not those of another species. It is not until the developing organism is interfered with in an unnatural way, for example by the experimental removal of parts, or until the instructions in the form of genes are themselves interfered with, either in the laboratory, or naturally, as occurs during evolution, that we get changes in the pattern of the organism.

GEORGE, F. , Automation, Cybernetics and Society, Leonard Hill, London, 1959, p. 89. 56. STAHL, W. , and GOHEEN, H. , Molecular algorithms, / . Theoret. Biol. 5 (2) (September 1963) 266-87. 57. , The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London, 1959. 58. VON NEUMANN, JOHN, The general and logical theory of automata, in Cerebral Mechanisms in Behaviour, the Hixon Symposium (Ed. L. A. JEFFRESS), John Wiley, New York, 1951. 59. , Computing machinery and intelligence, Mind, 59 (1950) 433-60. 60.

As such it must form an important part of the subjectmatter of cybernetics and it would seem to involve most complicated, sophisticated and rigorous processes of control. " <> This is not to deny that information theory has been applied to development, but this has not been done in the context of dynamic explanatory models or with any reference to organisation (see Chapter 4); neither is it to deny that there are many models in cybernetics which are relevant to the problems of development, and these will be discussed in the next chapter, which is devoted to this topic—but it must be said that few of these deal with biological development itself.

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Cybernetics and Development by Michael J. Apter, and G. A. Kerkut (Auth.)


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