By Fred H. Lawson
This ebook explores the emergence of an anarchic states-system within the twentieth-century Arab international. Following the cave in of the Ottoman Empire, Arab nationalist pursuits first thought of developing a unified neighborhood association to take the empire's position and current a typical entrance to outdoors powers. yet through the years varied Arab leaderships deserted this venture and as a substitute followed regulations attribute of self-interested, territorially constrained states. In his clarification of this phenomenon, the writer shifts cognizance clear of older debates concerning the origins and improvement of Arab nationalism and analyzes as a substitute how diverse nationalist leaderships replaced the ways in which they carried on diplomatic and strategic kinfolk. He situates this shift within the context of influential sociological theories of nation formation, whereas exhibiting how exertions routine and different kinds of well known mobilization formed the origins of the neighborhood states-system.
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Extra resources for Constructing International Relations in the Arab World
41 When senior Egyptian oﬃcials fell over one another in their haste to associate themselves with the draft agreement, Zaghlul quickly upped the ante. 43 Two more years of intense bargaining ensued, culminating in a unilateral declaration whereby Britain relinquished all responsibility for governing the country. 46 Tunisia’s Early Turn With the establishment of the Protectorate in June 1883, French oﬃcials gained full authority over Tunisia’s internal and external aﬀairs. Nevertheless, prominent opponents of European rule carried out a sort of pro-Ottoman foreign policy in the aftermath of the French occupation.
Before setting out to explain the variation that is evident in these ﬁve cases, it will be useful to survey the divergent paths by which these ﬁve leaderships came to adopt foreign policy orientations congruent with the tenets of Westphalian sovereignty. Egypt’s Early Turn Nationalist leaders exerted little direct inﬂuence over Egypt’s external aﬀairs from 1882, when British troops seized control of the country, to the outbreak of the First World War. British advisers orchestrated the most important aspects of relations with surrounding states from behind the scenes, while the country’s nominal ruler, the Khedive `Abbas II, pursued the chimera of revivifying the Ottoman Empire by snatching for himself the venerable title of Successor to the Prophet (khalifah) from the sultan in Istanbul.
Chapter Two explores an inﬂuential set of concepts that has been proposed by historical sociologists, to see whether or not these concepts can account for the divergent paths these ﬁve states took. Chapter Three assesses a promising alternative approach drawn from the Introduction 17 ﬁeld of international relations. Chapter Four then builds on earlier arguments to formulate a novel explanation, which links the coming of Westphalian sovereignty to the timing and character of political struggles inside each of the ﬁve countries.
Constructing International Relations in the Arab World by Fred H. Lawson