By June Teufel Dreyer
This hugely revered textual content demonstrates how the govt. of China,the world's so much populous country, has been considerably laid low with makes an attempt to harmonize the original nature of its indigenous tradition with various impacts and concepts from the skin world.
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Extra info for China’s Political System: Modernization and Tradition
Throughout Confucius's writings, there are laments that the rules of etiquette are being ignored. The next dynasty, the Han, began to institute bureaucracy. Nobles were paid in rice for their service to the state rather than being granted fiefs. Land began to be bought and sold. As a result of these developments, China could no longer be called feudal. Yet, if Marx's categories of development are to be applied to China, feudalism should have been succeeded by the bourgeois-capitalist stage. It was not, really, as even Marxists agree.
Hence the army tended to be strong at the beginning of a dynasty, having been used to overthrow the previous incumbents. Then it would be allowed to decay because it was no longer needed. There was no navy to speak of, since China was attacked from the sea only by occasional pirates. Even then, the strategy adopted was often simply to move the coastal population inland. Some military presence was considered necessary at all times because of the need to deal with barbarian incursions. Scholar officials tended to usurp military command functions, especially in periods of dynastic decline, and always did their best to undercut military officers, who were usually not literate.
First, it produced intelligent officials who had thoroughly internalized the Confucian ethic. Second, it provided the people, including those who did not pass, an orthodox belief system that was important for the management of the empire. Third, the system rewarded merit, providing a channel of social mobility for the ambitious, even commoners, that was based on widely accepted moral principles rather than wealth, birth, brute force, or royal whim. There were disadvantages as well, many of them recognized by high-ranking officials who had succeeded within the system.
China’s Political System: Modernization and Tradition by June Teufel Dreyer