By Nahikari Irastorza
Are immigrants extra enterprising than natives in Spain? How winning are migrant marketers in comparison to those that commence companies of their kingdom of beginning? With the expansion of migration around the world, questions equivalent to those are garnering the eye of economists, policymakers and students. Born marketers? asks how foreignness impacts an immigrant's skill to release and to develop a profitable company. It additionally explores the industrial and social merits that immigrants may possibly derive from self-employment and the original components at play in so-called ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship.
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Extra info for Born Entrepreneurs?: Immigrant Self-Employment in Spain
Based on Table 7, changes in the proportion of foreigners in the largest origin groups from 1999 until 2005 are illustrated in Graph 8. 17 per cent) (see Table 7). Of the total number of registered foreigners, 12 per cent were self-employed and the remainder were salaried workers. 35 per cent, respectively). Graph 9 illustrates the self-employment rates of the ten largest foreign groups registered with the Spanish Social Security department by country of origin in January 2007. 88 per cent) had the highest numbers of self-employed while fewer than 20 per cent of other groups of foreigners were self-employed.
In sum, the purpose of this study is to analyse venture survival of foreign and native entrepreneurs. e. companies started by one entrepreneur. More precisely, I attempt to answer the following central questions related to the likelihood of survival of firms operating in the Basque Country: (5) Are ventures created by foreign entrepreneurs more or less likely to survive than those started by native entrepreneurs? (6) Are the determinants of business survival of native entrepreneurs similar to those attributed to foreign entrepreneurs?
From another point of view, the disadvantage hypothesis (Light 1972; 1979) holds that immigrants choose self-employment as an alternative to unemployment and non-satisfactory job conditions. In other words, entrepreneurial activity becomes an avenue for the socioeconomic advancement of the disadvantaged (Constant et al. 2003; Constant and Zimmermann 2004; Bauder 2005). Thus, I assume that a reasonable amount of individuals who belong to low-income segments of the population and have no easy access to the labour market will find selfemployment as a logical alternative for their subsistence (necessity-driven entrepreneurs).
Born Entrepreneurs?: Immigrant Self-Employment in Spain by Nahikari Irastorza