By Chester A. Arnold
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To several feet in extent. The individual head usually has in the center or towarH^the base a pebble, shell, or other object which served as the The original substratum to which the algal filaments were attached. THE NONVASCULAR PLANTS calcium carbonate 55 be deposited as a crust surrounding the surface may settle out as a precipitate to form a lime mud after death ^f the plants^ In the former case the filaments may be preserved, but selcTonf'are in the latter. Since the limy substance may of the algal filaments, or it increases by accretion, definite layering often results.
An example is the Callixylon wood scattered in small pieces throughout the Genundewa This limestone limestone of Upper Devonian age in central New York. nodular or concretionary at places and is made up mostly of the shells minute pterapod Styliolina fissurella, which apparently supplied most of the calcium carbonate. is of the As previously stated, iron pyrites (pyrite or marcasite) is widely distributed in shale arid sandstone as a petrifying mineral, and is often a It is an opaque substance which renders constituent of coal-balls.
It exists as an impression of an articulated stem bearing whorls of closely set branchlike structures. is THE NONVASCULAR PLANTS Because of its resemblance to the recent Halimeda, 47 it is provisionally classed with the Codiaceae. The algal family most copiously represented in the fossil series is the Dasycladaceae, one of the families of the Siphonocladales. This family embraces 10 Recent genera and a greater number of extinct ones. Its members are responsible for calcareous deposits ranging from the Ordovician to the present except that none are known from the Devonian or Lower Carboniferous.
An Introduction to Paleobotany by Chester A. Arnold