By Guy J.-M. Le Moigne
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In rural areas, reasonable access implies that a family member need not spend a disproportionate part of the day fetching water. "Safe" drinking water includes treated surface water and untreated water from protected springs, boreholes, and sanitary wells (World Resources 1993, p. 258). 2 Stakeholders are institutions and individuals that are concerned with or have an interest in water resources and that would be affected by decisions about water resources management. Stakeholders include people who may have little knowledge of such effects and lack the means to participate.
12). Too many development strategies, whether in water or in other areas, have Page 9 not fully involved the people affected by them (see Sandstrom 1994). Stakeholder participation involves those who are concerned with or have an interest in water resources and who will be affected by water resource decisions in the process of decisionmaking. It is similar to the idea of community participation in decisions at a project level. Decisions regarding water resources can affect nearly every sector of the economy and the public as a whole.
2. Participation in the strategy formulation process should help the policy goal endorsed by many countries of giving stakeholders as much responsibility as possible for water resources management. 25 Many governments and development institutions understand that participation will lead to effective development. One of the risks of stakeholder participation, however is over-politicization of issues (technical or non-technical). Some technical issues might be better left to the expert team or its advisors, particularly in the early stages of strategy formulation.
A guide to the formulation of water resources strategy by Guy J.-M. Le Moigne