By Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis
A radical creation to 3D laser microfabrication know-how, best readers from the basics and thought to its a number of effective purposes, reminiscent of the new release of tiny gadgets or three-d constructions in the bulk of obvious fabrics. The booklet additionally offers new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater figuring out of the variations among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the longer term. Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a necessary resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.
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All characteristic time periods are long in comparison with the electronic oscillations, t >> xpe–1. Therefore, one can neglect the electron inertia. Then, the electrostatic field from the first equation of (A3) can be related to the electron pressure as the following: 35 36 2 Laser–Matter Interaction Confined Inside the Bulk of a Transparent Solid ene E » À ¶Pe À me vei ne ue ¶x (A4) The conservation of momentum for ions then can be presented in the form: Á ¶r u1 ¶ À ¼À Pe þ Pi þ ru2i ¶t ¶x (A5) The energy conservation for electrons (ignoring the fast electron motion and electron kinetic energy) reads: ¶ðne ee Þ ¶ ¼ Qabs þ ke ÑTe À ven ne ðTe À Ti Þ ¶t ¶x (A6) Here Qabs is the absorbed energy density rate.
82, 3883–3886 (1999). 31 L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franko, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrovicz, Femtosecond laserInduced Damage and Filamentary Propa- 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 gation in Fused silica, Phys. Rev. , 89, 186601-1 (2002). W. B. M. D. G. Demos, Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials, Phys. Rev. , 92, 087401-1 (2004). J. R. Oppenheimer, Three notes on the quantum theory of a periodic effect, Phys. , 31, 66 (1928). V. Keldysh, Ionization in the field of a strong electro-magnetic wave, Sov.
Thus, they can be gradually accelerated to an energy in excess of the band-gap. The process of electron acceleration can be represented, in a simplified way, as for Joule heating : e2 v x2 veÀph de eÀph E 2 ¼ 2eosc ¼ dt 2m* v2 þ x2 v2 þ x 2 eÀph (23) eÀph Here e, m*, meff are respectively the electron charge, the effective mass, and the e2 E 2 effective collision rate; x, E, and eosc ¼ 4m* x2 are the laser frequency, the electric field and the electron oscillation energy in the field.
3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications by Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis